Evaluación del funcionamiento ejecutivo y habilidades adaptativas en un niño de 11 años con diagnóstico de TEA en comorbilidad con TDAH: un estudio de caso
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Gutiérrez-Ruiz, K., Cano Iriarte, D. C., & Hernández Mendoza, A. (2020). Evaluación del funcionamiento ejecutivo y habilidades adaptativas en un niño de 11 años con diagnóstico de TEA en comorbilidad con TDAH: un estudio de caso. Tesis Psicológica, 15(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.37511/tesis.v15n1a4

Resumen

Antecedentes. Puede existir comorbilidad entre el Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA) y el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad (TDAH), aunque hasta hace pocos años existía restricción para su diagnóstico. Objetivo. En este estudio se describe el caso de un niño de 11 años con diagnóstico dual de TEA y TDAH que es evaluado con el fin de documentar la presencia de déficits en el funcionamiento ejecutivo y adaptativo, y explorar la correspondencia entre medidas cognitivas y una medida conductual de Funciones Ejecutivas (FE). Metodología. Se administraron las pruebas M-WCST, Stroop, TMT-A y TMT-B, test de Símbolos y Dígitos, y test de Fluidez fonológica y semántica como medidas cognitivas de FE; el Brief-2 como medida de evaluación conductual de FE, y las escalas Vinneland-3 como instrumento de habilidades adaptativas. Resultados. Las medidas cognitivas de FE permitieron identificar dificultades principalmente en memoria de trabajo. Por su parte, el instrumento conductual informó rigidez cognitiva, dificultad en memoria de trabajo, pobre control inhibitorio, y problemas en la regulación emocional, cognitiva y conductual. La valoración de las habilidades adaptativas del menor pone en evidencia un nivel bajo de desarrollo de habilidades adaptativas relacionadas con el área comunicativa tanto en la expresión como en la comprensión del lenguaje, y moderadamente bajo en habilidades de socialización. Conclusiones. Se evidencia que, si bien el niño tiene un rendimiento promedio en la mayoría de las tareas cognitivas de FE, tiene dificultad en la realización de actividades de la vida cotidiana que involucran a las FE en la regulación de la conducta. En este sentido, es recomendable la complementariedad de instrumentos cognitivos de FE y medidas conductuales con valor ecológico en las evaluaciones realizadas a pacientes con comorbilidad entre TEA y TDAH.

https://doi.org/10.37511/tesis.v15n1a4
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