Trastorno por estrés postraumático y epigenética. Metilaciones en genes asociados al estrés
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Castaño-Loaiza, L. X., Gallego-Ospina, C. D., García-Aguirre, J. F., & Orrego-Cardozo, M. (2021). Trastorno por estrés postraumático y epigenética. Metilaciones en genes asociados al estrés. Tesis Psicológica, 16(2), 1-28. https://doi.org/10.37511/tesis.v16n2a5

Resumen

Antecedentes: El trastorno por estrés postraumático (TEPT) es un desorden psiquiátrico relacionado con estrés y ansiedad producido por un evento traumático. Es de origen multifactorial y destacan factores genéticos, epigenéticos y ambientales. Objetivo: Presentar una revisión de literatura que muestre la relación entre las metilaciones en genes de la vía de los glucocorticoides y el desarrollo del TEPT. Metodología: La búsqueda de literatura se realizó en las bases de datos Web of Science (WoS), Scopus y PubMed con la ecuación de búsqueda: “PTSD” and “glucocorticoid” and “epigenetic”, entre 2000 y 2020. Resultados: Se analizaron 12 artículos de investigación que repotaron la relación entre los genes: NR3C1, FKBP5, GILZ, las metilaciones asociadas y el desarrollo de TEPT. Se encontró que los niveles de metilación de estos genes están relacionados con el desarrollo de TEPT en personas que sufrieron abuso infantil, en víctimas que padecieron traumas de guerra (genocidio, combate, holocausto) y en sus hijos; asociados a cambios estructurales en áreas cerebrales y la respuesta al tratamiento. Conclusiones: Las metilaciones en los genes involucrados en la vía de los glucocorticoides están implicados en el riesgo de desarrollar TEPT. Se evidencia heterogeneidad de resultados en la relación de los niveles de metilación y el riesgo de padecer el trastorno; en el tipo de población y en los tipos de trauma. Los niveles de metilación en los genes revisados podrían ser usados como biomarcadores relacionados con factores como: herencia, tratamiento y susceptibilidad de padecer TEPT ante diferentes traumas y ser evaluados en futuras investigaciones en distintas poblaciones.

 

https://doi.org/10.37511/tesis.v16n2a5
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