Objective: This article presents the results of a study with an experimental design; whose objective was to examine the effects of a virtual learning environment focused on the self-regulation of writing on the development of self-regulation and academic writing skills. Background: The course design presented here is based on the idea that writing should be taught as a process, not as a product, which requires training students in the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies. For this reason, the course set out to increase two skills: 1) the ability to self-regulate academic text writing process and 2) metacognitive awareness. Methodology: In an experimental design, 46 master and doctoral students participated in the 12 – week course, designed to be implemented in an online modality, through the Moodle learning management system. Given the self-regulating nature of this intervention proposal, didactic tools were created enabling the subject to identify and learn about their own processes and the resources they usually employ to develop writing tasks. To that end, the course has two specific strategies: a self-regulating writing scaffolding (SWS) and different tools to increase metacognitive awareness (IMA). The effects of these strategies were observed separately and combined. Results: A first aspect to consider with respect to the effects of the SWS on factors associated with self-regulation is the increase in motivation at the end of the intervention, this, by incorporating strategies such as the explicit formulation of goals, self-evaluation and the explanation of the usefulness and functionality of the task. Regarding achievements reached in improving writing, the SWS also proves to be the most effective for this purpose. Modelling specific behaviours such as choosing specific objectives for the writing task, the formulation of a defined and explicit plan, monitoring behaviours, self-evaluation and self-reinforcement are determinants to reach higher levels of writing.
Allen, L. K., Jacovina, M. E., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). Computer-Based Writing Instruction. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of Writing Research (pp. 316-329). New York: The Guilford Press. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED586512.pdf
Azevedo, R. (2005). Using hypermedia as a metacognitive tool for enhancing student learning ? The role of self- regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 199-209. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4004
Azevedo, R., & Cromley, J. G. (2004). Does Training on Self-Regulated Learning Facilitate Students’ Learning With Hypermedia? Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 523-535. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1683
Azevedo, R., & Witherspoon, A. (2009). Self-regulated learning with hypermedia. In D. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. Graesser (Eds.), Handbook of metacognition in education (pp. 319-339). Nueva Jersey: Routledge.
Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Berthold, K., Nückles, M., & Renkl, A. (2007). Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. Learning and Instruction, 17(5), 564–577. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.09.007
Budde, S., Glaser, C., & Brunstein, J. (2012). Implementation of self-regulated writing strategies in elementary classes. In M. Torrance, D. Alamargot, M. Castelló, F. Ganier, O. Kruse, A. Mangen, L. Tolchinsky & L. Van Waes (Eds), Learning to write effectively: current trends in European research, Studies in writing series (pp. 71-74). Bingley: Emerald.
Burnham, S. (1994). For writers only. New York: Ballantine.
Chakor, Y., & Faddouli, N.-e. (2016). Abandonment of Learners MOOC Problematic Analysis and proposed solutions. International Journal of Computer Applications, 153(2) 35- 37. https://doi.org/10.5120/ijca2016911977
Cislaru, G., & Thierry, O. (2018). Le processus de textualisation. Analyse des unités linguistiques de performance écrite. Louvain-La-Neuve: De Boeck Supérieur.
Dussarps, C. (2015). L’abandon en formation à distance [Abandonment in distance education]. Distances et Médiations Des Savoirs, no. 10. https://doi.org/10.4000/dms.1039
Graesser, A. C., Wiley, J., Goldman, S. R., O’Reilly, T., Jeon, M., & McDaniel, B. (2007). SEEK Web tutor: Fostering a critical stance while exploring the causes of volcanic eruption. Metacognition and Learning, 2, 89-105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-007-9013-x Falta agregar volumen, número y páginas.
Graham, S. (2006). Strategy instruction and the teaching of writing: A meta-analysis. In C. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp. 187–207). New York: Guilford.
Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools. A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Graham, S., Harris, K., & Chambers, A. (2016). Evidence-based practice and writing instruction. En C. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald, Handbook of writing research (pp. 211-226). New York: The Guilford Press. https://www.guilford.com/excerpts/graham_ch1.pdf?t
Harris, K. R., Graham, S., MacArthur, C. A., Reid, R., & Mason, L. H. (2011). Self-Regulated Learning Processes and Children’s Writing. En B. Zimmerman & D. Schunk, D. (Eds.) Handbook of Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance, (pp. 187–202). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Hayes, J., & Flower, L. (1981). A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing. College Composition and Communication, 4(32), 365-387. https://doi.org/10.2307/356600
Hayes, J. R. & Flower, L. S. (1983). Uncovering cognitive processes in writing: An introduction to protocol analysis. In P. Mosenthal, L. Tamor, and S. Walmsley (Eds.), Research on writing: Principles and Methods (pp. 207-220). New York: Longman
Hayes, J., & Flower, L. (1986). Writing Research and the Writer. American Psychologist, 41, 1106-1113. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1106
Hayes, J. R. (1996). A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing. In C. M. Levy & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences, and applications (p. 1–27). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Hederich, C., Camargo, Á., & López, O. (2015). Amadís: un andamiaje para el desarrollo de la autorregulación en la educación virtual [Amadis: a scaffolding for the development of self-regulation in virtual education]. Bogotá: Universidad Pedagógica Nacional - Colciencias.
Hederich, C., Camargo, Á., & López, O. (2018). Andamiajes computacionales para favorecer la autorregulacióndel aprendizaje: una revisión de investigaciones [Computational scaffolding to favor self-regulation of learning: a review]. En N. Arias (Ed.), Aportes a la investigación sobre educación virtual desde América Latina. Comunicación, redes, aprendizajes y desarrollo institucional y social (pp. 117-140). Bogotá: Politecnico Grancolombiano.
Hederich, C., López, O., & Camargo, A. (2016). Effects of the use of a flexible metacognitive scaffolding on self-regulated learning during virtual education. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 8(3/4) 199-216. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTEL.2016.082321
Kellogg, R. (1994). The psychology of writing. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.
Kellogg, R. T. (2008). Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective. Journal of Writing Research, 1(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.17239/jowr-2008.01.01.1
Koster, M., Tribushinina, E., de Jong, P. F., & van den Bergh, H. (2015). Teaching children to write: A meta-analysis of writing intervention research. Journal of Writing Research, 7(2), 249–274.
Lachner, A., Burkhart, Ch., & Nückles, M. (2017). Formative computer-based feedback in the university classroom: Specific concept maps scaffold students' writing. Computers in Human Behavior, (72), 459 - 469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.008
Lamb, B. (1997). Booknotes: America’s finest authors on reading, writing,and the power of ideas. New York: Random House.
Limpo, T., Alves, R., & Fidalgo, R. (2013). Children's high-level writing skills: Development of planning and revising and their contribution to writing quality. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 177-193. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12020
MacArthur, C. A., & Graham, S. (2016). Writing research from a cognitive perspective. In In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp. 24–40). New York: The Guilford Press. https://www.guilford.com/excerpts/macarthur.pdf?t
MacArthur, C. A., Philippakos, Z. A., & Graham, S. (2016). A multicomponent measure of writing motivation with basic college writers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 39(1), 31-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731948715583115
Malpique, A., Veiga, A., & Frison, L. (2017). Self-regulated strategies for school writing tasks: a cross-cultural report. Psychology of Language and Communication, (21) 1, 244 - 265. https://doi.org/10.1515/plc-2017-0012
McCormick, C. (2003). Metacognition and learning. In W. Reynolds, & G. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of psychology (pp. xx-xx). Nueva York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Negretti, R. (2012). Metacognition in student academic writing: a longitudinal study of metacognitive awareness and its relation to task perception, self-regulation, and evaluation of performance. Written Communication, 29(2), 142-179. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088312438529
Nückles, M., Hübner, S., & Renkl, A. (2009). Enhancing self-regulated learning by writing learning protocols. Learning and Instruction, 19(3), 259–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.05.002
Olive, T., & Piolat, A. (2005). Le rôle de la mémoire de travail dans la production écrite de textes [The role of working memory in written production]. Psychologie Française, 50(3), 373–390. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psfr.2005.05.002
Palermo, C,. & Thomson, M. (2018). Teacher implementation of Self-Regulated Strategy Development with an automated writing evaluation system: Effects on the argumentative writing performance of middle school student. Contemporary Educational Psychology, (54), 255 - 270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.07.002
Rogers, L., & Graham, S. (2008). A meta-analysis of single subject design writing intervention research. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 879-906. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1249
Schraw, G. (1998). Promoting general metacognitive awareness. Instructional Science, 26(1-2), 113-125.
Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1986). Written composition. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook on research on teaching, Vol. 3, pp. 778-803. New York: MacMillan.
Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 460-475. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1994.1033
Torrance, M., Alamargot, D., Castelló, M., Ganier, F., Kruse, O., Mangen, A., Tolchinsky, L., & Van Waes, L. (2012). Learning to write effectively: current trends in european research. Iwa: Emerald
Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of child Psychology and Psychiatry, (17) 2, 89 - 100. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00381.x
Zimmerman, B. (2011). Motivational sources and outcomes of self-regulated learning and performance. En B. Zimmerman, & D. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 49-64). New York: Routledge.
Zimmerman, B. ., & Campillo, M. (2003). Motivating self-regulated problem solvers. In J. E. Davidson & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The psychology of problem solving (pp. 233–262). New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615771
Zimmerman, B. J., & Risemberg, R. (1997). Becoming a Self-Regulated Writer: A Social Cognitive Perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22(1), 73–101. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1997.0919